Sunday, May 24, 2020

Ted Hughes Birthday Letters - 1199 Words

BIRTHDAY LETTERS Introduction: Conflicting perspectives are different points of view expressed and influenced by ones context and values. â€Å"Birthday Letters† by Ted Hughes is an anthology of poems challenging the accusation that he was responsible for his wife, Sylvia Plath’s death. The three poems The Minotaur, Your Paris, and Red are an insight into Hughes justification of the death of Plath using a very subjective and emotive poetic form. The poems possess many deliberate techniques such as extended metaphors, connotations, diction and juxtaposition to encourage the audience to accept his argument that he was not the one to blame for this world renown tragedy. The poem Daddy by Sylvia Plath also displays conflicting perspectives of the†¦show more content†¦YOUR PARIS Quotes: The poem â€Å"Your Paris† indicates that from the beginning of their marriage, their perspectives on life were different, antagonistic. It also shows how Hughes was uncomprehending in the face of his wife’s personality and how he tried to come to terms with it. His version of the city was so different that â€Å"I kept my Paris from you†. It was the wartime city, occupied by the Germans, As Hughes registers their different responses to the city, and he finds a way of telling the truth about their different selves and the tension between them. The irony of this is that the situation is taking place on their honeymoon, although this is a biographical fact to which Hughes does not explicitly refer. That omission is suggestive of the problems of the relationship. Plath’s spoken responses to Paris, which enabled her to cope with the intensity of its impact upon her, produced a negative reaction in Hughes, â€Å"It was diesel aflame†, and â€Å"To the dog in me†. Conclusion: Your Paris is written from Hughes’s Perspective about Plath’s perspective, thus it is unclear whether Plath truly valued the significance of Paris. Hughes initial conflicting perspectives of Plath are represented in the poem. YOUR DADDY Quotes: In Plath’s poem ‘Daddy’, Hughes begins by pointing out that mere human beings were insufficient for Plath’s worship, she needed â€Å"a god†. The psychologicalShow MoreRelatedSha’Lynn Ayler . Mrs. Cowan. Honor English 12 4Th Block.1420 Words   |  6 PagesFebruary 2017 The Life of Ted Hughes In the â€Å"The Hawk in the Rain,† Ted Hughes writes, â€Å"I drown in the drumming ploughland, I drag up / Heel after heel from the swallowing of the earth’s mouth, / From clay that clutches my each step to the ankle / With the habit of the dogged grave, but the hawk/ Effortlessly at height hangs his still eye† (News about Ted Hughes†). This is Hughes’ first and most accomplished collection to this day. During the twentieth century Hughes produced some of his mostRead MorePeople s Love At First Sight By Sylvia Plath1567 Words   |  7 Pageslove at first sight. Sylvia Plath, an American writer, experienced the desirable moment the first time she saw Ted Hughes, an English poet (Middlebrook). The romantic relationship between Ted Hughes and Sylvia Plath grew instantly. They both shared a love of writing, but yet their relationship began to go downhill five years after their marriage (Popova). The marriage between Ted Hughes and Sylvia Plath was de structive because of Sylvia’s unstable mental health and Ted’s unfaithfulness, but it wasRead MoreA Brief Look at Ted Hughes646 Words   |  3 Pagesquote from Ted Hughes. Ted Hughes was a man of love. Hughes was known for many of his children books and famous poems. Hughes is also greatly known for holding the title of British Poet Laureate from 1984 until his death. Love was an important aspect of Ted Hughes life and two poems: Love Song and September. Ted Hughes was born August 17, 1930 in Yorkshire, England. His parents were Edith Hughes and William Henry. His father was a carpenter. Hughes had two siblings Owlyn and Gerald Hughes. At the ageRead MoreFlowered Memories: an Analysis of Ted Hughes Daffodils1319 Words   |  6 Pages‘Imagine what you are writing about. See it and live it. Ââ€"Ted Hughes, Poetry in the Making Edward James Hughes was English Poet Laureate from 1984 to his death in 1998. Famous for his violent poems about the innocent savagery of animals, Ted Hughes was born on Mytholmroyd, in the West Riding district of Yorkshire, which became the psychological terrain of his later poetry (The Literary Encyclopedia). He was married to the famous Sylvia Plath from 1956 up to her controversial suicide in 1956Read MoreTo What Extent Does Hughes Poem Your Paris Present the Main Issues of the Collection Birthday Letters?983 Words   |  4 PagesTo what extent does Hughes’ poem, ‘Your Paris’ present the main issues of Birthday Letters? (Reference to two other poems) Ted Hughes’ poem ‘Your Paris’ was written about Ted Hughes’ and Sylvia Plath’s visit to Paris shortly after their marriage on 16 June 1956. The poem is part of the collection ‘Birthday Letters’ published in 1998, 35 years after the suicide of Sylvia Plath and so is written (as most of the collection) with the benefit of Hindsight and so Hughes is able to relate their trip toRead MoreEssay about The Successful Career of Ted Hughes661 Words   |  3 PagesTed Hughes is a very successful author. There are many things that would allow you to come to this conclusion. Throughout his life, many things happened which helped contribute to his workings. Throughout his career he showed imagery, characterization, mystery, and irony techniques in his books and poems. The life of Ted Hughes contributed to many of his works. He is often referred to as one of greatest English authors in the twentieth century. He was born on August 17th, 1930 in Yorkshire. HisRead MoreAnalysis of Hughess You Hated Spain1097 Words   |  5 PagesIn You Hated Spain, Hughes explores the character of a woman and her relationship with her husband. You Hated Spain is set during the honeymoon of Plath and Hughes and is part of Hughes’ collection of poems titled Birthday Letters. Plath’s suicide was the result of a forced breakdown of communication with Hughes. Hughes’ use of free verse and enjambement creates a natural progression of thoughts. The autobiographical, ‘letter-writing’ genre suggests that these poems are a form of therapy, used toRead MoreHsc English: Conflicting Perspectives - Ted Hughes Poems985 Words   |  4 Pagescan do this by analysing the viewpoints presented by Ted Hughes’ confessional poems, The Minotaur and Red from his anthology The Birthday Letters (published 1998) and the feature article, Face of a People Smuggler by Fenella Souter, featured in Good Weekend (April 21, 2012). Through our analysis, we are able to separate fact from fallacy. The ‘truths’ presented by Ted Hughes’ The Minotaur are questionable because of the context in which Hughes released this poem. The Minotaur was published in 1998Read MoreTed Hughes: The Shadow of Sylvia Plath Essay example2299 Words   |  10 Pagesrecipient of both the Queen’s Gold Medal for Poetry and T.S. Eliot’s prize for poetry, Ted Hughes was an acclaimed poet. The shadow of Hughes late wife, Sylvia Plath, kept Hughes stagnant in his career, in which he was known as â€Å"Her Husband† (Middlebrook). Hughes most recent collection of poems, Birthday Letters, took him over twenty-five years to write, and contains poems which recount the marriage of the couple. Hughes wrote the poems as a loving gesture towards Sylvia, but the poems were misinterpretedRead MoreConflicting Perspectives - Hughes1429 Words   |  6 PagesTogether the works of Ted Hughes, Christine Jeffs and J.D Salinger combine to enhance an understanding of the concept of conflicting perspectives. The audience can see that there is a great deal of ubiquity in relation to Conflicting Perspectives. Ted Hughes’ poetry gives his account of a tumultuous part of his life whilst Christine Jeff’s film portrays a different point of view than that given by Hughes’. It is through looking at Salinger’s novel, that the role of the authorial voice in contrast

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Study On Suggestions By Banks To Rbi Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1312 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Business Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? Banks are of the opinion that it would ease the processes if regulator comes up with industry wise correlation. RBI guidelines are broader in nature. They should be more indicative. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Study On Suggestions By Banks To Rbi Finance Essay" essay for you Create order The document requirement for complying by the guidelines of RBI and Basel are highly centered according to international banks. Some scenarios are not at all relevant to Indian markets. Hence there is a need to revise the framework of guidelines with an Indian perspective so that the fatigue of writing so many documents can be done away with. RBI has modified the CRAR from 8% to 9%. This makes capital a limiting factor. Hence it restricts the natural growth of the bank. Hence the regulator should reconsider this. The terms used in the guidelines issued are directly picked from the documents in Basel or those finding implementation in foreign countries. The terms should be explained more correctly to all the banks. Conclusion Worldwide, there is an increasing trend towards centralizing risk management with integrated treasury management to benefit from information synergies on aggregate exposure, as well as scale economies and easier reporting to top management. Keeping all this in view, the Reserve Bank has issued broad guidelines for risk management systems in banks. This has placed the primary responsibility of laying down risk parameters and establishing the risk management and control system on the Board of Directors of the bank. However, it is to be recognized that, in view of the diversity and varying size of balance sheet items as between banks, it might neither be possible nor necessary to adopt a uniform risks management system. The design of risk management framework should, therefore, be oriented towards the banks own requirement dictated by the size and complexity of business, risk philosophy, market perception and the existing level of capital. While doing so, banks may critically evaluate their existing risk management system in the light of the guidelines issued by the Reserve Bank and should identify the gaps in the existing risk management practices and the policies and strategies for complying with the guidelines. Credit risk management: Risk management has assumed increased importance of regulatory compliance point of view. Credit risk, being an important component of risk, has been adequately focused upon. Credit risk management can be viewed at two levels-at the level of an individual asset or exposure and at the portfolio level. Credit risk management tools, therefore, have to work at both individual and portfolio levels. Traditional tools of credit risk management include loan policies, standards for presentation of credit proposals, delegation of loan approving powers, multi-tier credit approving systems, prudential limits on credit exposures to companies and groups, stipulation of financial covenants, standards for collaterals, limits on asset concentr ations and independent loan review mechanisms. Monitoring of non-performing loans has, however, a focus on remedy rather than advance warning or prevention. Banks assign internal ratings to borrowers, which will determine the interest spread charged over PLR. These ratings are also used for monitoring of loans. A more scientific Quantitative approach is the need of the hour. Market risk management: Asset Liability Management as a risk management technique is gaining in popularity as banks are beginning to recognize the need for proper risk management. The challenge for the banks therefore is to put in place the necessary infrastructure that can help them derive the utmost benefit from ALM. The banks progress in Asset Liability Management will depend on the initiatives of their management rather than on RBI supervision. Given the existing hurdles, the evolution of ALM in commercial banks will be a slow process. ALM has evolved since the early 1980s. Techniques of ALM have also ev olved. The growth of OTC derivatives markets has facilitated a variety of hedging strategies. A significant development has been securitization, which allows firms to directly address asset-liability risk by removing assets or liabilities from their balance sheets. Thus, the scope of ALM activities has widened. Today, ALM departments are addressing (non-trading) foreign exchange risks as well as other risks. Corporations have adopted techniques of ALM to address interest-rate exposures, liquidity risk and foreign exchange risk. Thus it can be safely said that Asset Liability Management will continue to grow in future and an efficient ALM technique will go a long way in managing volume, mix, maturity, rate sensitivity, quality and liquidity of the assets and liabilities so as to earn a sufficient and acceptable return on the portfolio. Operational risk management: The best defense against operational risk is to have effective systems and controls. These need to be appropriate to t he risks and as easy as possible to understand, implement and monitor. There is a strong common interest here between the regulator and a banks senior management. An intensified interest by the latter in everyday operational losses is likely to reduce the possibility of large losses, improve general risk awareness in a company and the regulator will feel that the interests of the consumer are being better safeguarded. When considering operational risk, the regulator faces a similar dilemma to the bank: where are the main risks, how can they best be controlled, and what level of capital can reasonably be required? In future, it is likely these questions will become even more pertinent. This is not least because regulators, in line with some banks, are carving out capital to be held specifically against market, credit and operational risk. But it is also because regulators have come to think that operational risk may not be significantly correlated with either of the other two types o f risk categories. However, as was the case with the original regulatory capital ratio set by the Basle Committee, the only real touchstone for this is some sort of reference to current aggregate capital. Another option for the regulator would be to refer to benchmark loss experiences. The problem here is that the data are often not obtainable availability differs from country to country and business to business and may not be suitable for operational risk throughout the bank. The regulator could, alternatively, rely on internal economic capital allocation. Perhaps what is needed most is time. One thing is clear, and it is that there are more questions than answers around operational risk for both banks and regulators. Consequently, both parties will need, in the immediate future, to enter into an open and technical discussion of the way forward. Supervision process: Before 1950s regulation and supervision by RBI was not that stringent as the banking activity was limited to col lection of deposits and issue of loans. Moreover, there was no separate comprehensive enactment for the banking sector. With the introduction of the Banking Companies Act, 1949, (later Banking Regulations Act, 1949) the scope of RBI supervision broadened over the years, necessary changes in the supervisory system have been made to meet with the new challenges emerging in the financial sector. In the wake of rapid changes in the financial sector such as emergence of Universal Banking, introduction of Securitization, integration of various markets, etc. a lot of preparations for further strengthening the supervisory mechanism is required, not only on the part of RBI but by individual banks also. World over the way financial markets are integrating day by day, risk is continuously increasing. RBI, keeping in view international best practices has already taken certain initiatives in this regard and there is a proposal to introduce shortly, the system of Consolidated Supervision too, alo ng with Risk Based Supervision. The impact on banks key ratios due to banking supervision reveals good results and walking on the same continuum few issues can be stressed upon like technology upgradation, corporate governance, market intelligence etc. By critically examining all the aspects related to risk management, an AHP model was developed which gave the comprehensive risk rating of the bank. This rating would help in comparison with other banks in the industry and evaluate the areas of improvement if any.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Persuasive Essay Topics Writing - the Story

Persuasive Essay Topics Writing - the Story The Ultimate Persuasive Essay Topics Writing Trick At the exact same time, it's an amazing persuasive essay idea. You will find that several of the topics can be adapted to suit almost any sort of writing assignment. Your persuasive essay needs to have a very clear plan, which will provide you an opportunity to focus on the most important elements of the work and put aside all of the minor arguments. Just write down the critical points you wish to put in your essay and concentrate on developing them. Top Persuasive Essay Topics Writing Choices Qualities of an excellent persuasive essay topic The topic ought to be specific. Quite frequently, the very best topic is one which you truly care about, but you also will need to get ready to research it. Selecting an excellent topic for your essay is among the most significant and frequently tricky parts for many students. Possessing fantastic research abilities and selecting a superb topi c is vital. Every school has to have a sex education class. There are several persuasive essay topics to pick from to finish your high school or college assignment. Even a student can begin a business online. Students with good attendance has to be rewarded. First of all, you will need to comprehend the fundamental fundamentals of persuasive writing and know the five elements of persuasion. Any idea can prove to be a wonderful foundation for a topic. It is very important to pick a topic that you truly care about because you will likely enjoy writing and it's going to be less difficult for you to have a stand on such problem and defend your standpoint. Figure out which of the topics, you presently have a fairly good background on which will make it possible for you to have a relative edge. Persuasive essays are a fantastic means to encourage the reader to check at a particular topic in a different light. An argumentative essay requires you to choose a topic and have a po sition on it. It's important to understand that essay topics are just basic ideas that leave you pondering an idea that might be a huge deal to somebody else. Deciding upon a persuasive essay topic may take a great deal of time without ending up with the terrific solution. The Battle Over Persuasive Essay Topics Writing and How to Win It Before writing any form of academic paper, it is crucial to choose the subject, and the persuasive essay isn't the exception. Persuasive essay format differs in every specific instance, even though it has some common facets. Persuasive essays haven't any paragraph limits. A persuasive essay should adhere to a typical pattern if you would like it to be readable and clear. The Characteristics of Persuasive Essay Topics Writing In most high schools, your capability of writing this kind of essay is going to be evaluated in class. There are many persuasive essay examples college students are able to make use of online. Select the period of lif e that you believe is best and compose an essay arguing why it's the very best time of life. In fact, understanding how to compose a persuasive essay is a significant skill for students of various specialties. Before you commence working on the paper, you must go through several topics to compose a persuasive essay on. Most issues can have essays on all the aforementioned questions. You must settle on a persuasive essay topic that permits you to present the most effective possible case. The most effective persuasive speeches aren't written in a rush. When prior brainstorming is finished, you might begin drafting your essay. Be sure to define the objectives of your essay clearly because your essay is dependent upon your approach. Weave in your own perspective to make it unique. Every argumentative essay ought to have an opposing view which can help you to prove you're right. Always remember a great persuasive essay ought to be persuasive. Writing an outline is a must if you need your essay to have a crystal clear and understandable structure. Writing a persuasive essay demands a great deal more than the capability of convincing the readers. It is not an easy task to accomplish. Writing a superb persuasive essay is not a simple task, however, it's achievable.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Ethics in Intercultural and International Communication

Question: 1. What topic discussed in this subject you find most interesting? 2. Write a personal reflection (with two or three supporting reasons) why you found this topic of great interest 3. How do you think you could apply it in your present or future professional career? Answer: 1. Among all the topics given in this assignment, I have decided to choose intercultural communication as my selected topic. The overarching term intercultural communication refers to the interaction among the people of different cultures and backgrounds. With the upgrading progress of globalization, people of different attitudes and backgrounds are associated within a business organization (Casmir 2013). The business experts intend to focus on the skill and competency of an individual professional rather than their religious and cultural background. Therefore, after being amalgamated with the people of different attitudes and cultures employees can get the opportunity to become familiar with different languages. Based on the religion and cultures, the language as well as the approach of communication varies. Despite the presence of diverse cultures and religions, organizational professionals intend to make an effective communication with each other in order to exchange necessary inf ormation (Samovar et al. 2014). Intercultural communication can be conducted in two categories that include verbal communication and non-verbal communication. In most of the cases, it has been observed that people of different cultures are not flexible enough to make an effective communication at the workplace due to the linguistic barriers. In this kind of situation, the organizational managers intend to maintain non-verbal communication as well. Non-verbal communication indicates interaction between sender and receiver with the help of written communication, expression, indication and so many. Intercultural communication is highly important for evaluating the skills and mental ability of an individual. Intercultural communication helps professional to come in close contact with various kinds of people, their habits, languages and manners. Professionals get the scope to be accustomed with each others cultures and attitudes (Martin and Nakayama 2013). Therefore, the professionals get the opportunity to show their versatile attitudes. In addition, when a business organization is constituted with professionals of different backgrounds, their psychology differs while taking necessary decision at the workplace. Intercultural communication helps the business managers to take collective decision at the workplace. 2. I have chosen this topic amidst the all due to several reasons. I am personally associated with a business organization working as a supervisor in customer service department. I have personally observed that intercultural communication is endowed with some of the necessary advantages as well as disadvantages. I have come across the professionals of different cultures and backgrounds. Their way of expressions, their communication approach, their psychological approaches are different from me. On one hand, I have faced innumerable barriers in order to make an effective communication with those employees. The primary barriers that I faced while interacting with those people include linguistic barriers, psychological barriers, cultural barriers and so many. As a result, I was facing difficulties to provide effective service process to the customers, as I was unable to communicate properly with them. In this kind of situation, our human resource department decided to provide an effecti ve training to those professionals in order to enhance their communication skill. After receiving the training, I was able to maintain an effective communication with those professionals. I personally observed that their way of thought while making business strategic decision helped me immense to enhance my knowledge and competency. I have learnt to develop my personal manners and attitudes by observing their cultures. A large number of employees are immensely talented and skillful. Due to their language barriers, they did not get the scope to be associated with professional field. However, my organization after implementing diversity management at the workplace has opened the door for employees of different cultures and backgrounds. As a result, I have been familiar with a large number of talented and skilful employees from whom I have learnt to develop my personal and professional skill. Therefore, as per my personal experience I have observed that people of diverse cultures and attitudes can render variation within a business organization. Therefore, intercultural communication can help the organizational professionals for communicating with diverse people and atti tudes. 3. Intercultural communication can help me to develop my present and future career immensely. As per my knowledge and experience, I have evaluated that an individual has to be very much flexible for dealing with the people of diverse cultures and attitudes. I am having a limitation in language as well as psychology. In order to communicate with the different kinds of people I should know several languages with the help of which I would be able to maintain an effective communication with them. On one hand, I would get the scope to learn various languages for enhancing my knowledge and skills. On the other hand, I would be able to make a proper and strong communication with the employees to exchange necessary information. As a result, customers would get good service process from the employees that would ultimately enhance organizational image and reputation. My professional career is highly dependent on the revenue growth of my business organization. In addition, intercultural communication would help to enhance my decision-making skill as well. In my business organization, I have to perform within a team. The business leaders focus on group performance rather than individual performance. However, while involving with a particular team I have to share my point of views towards reaching the business goal. In this kind of situation, I as a team member have to give priority on others decision as well. At that particular time, I have observed that in several times my other co-workers while expressing their own point of view regarding the business goal has provided innovative plans and thoughts that are more applicable and suitable for this particular business strategy. In this kind of situation, I get the scope to make better decision. It reflects on developing my professional career as well. On the other hand, in many cases, I would receive immense co-operation in developing my technological skill from my co-workers belonging from d iverse cultures and attitudes. I should have the capability of making a strong communication with my coworkers because of which they can understand my problem. Therefore, intercultural communication is highly important for developing my personal and professional career as well. Reference List: Casmir, F.L., 2013.Ethics in intercultural and international communication. Routledge. Martin, J.N. and Nakayama, T.K., 2013.Experiencing intercultural communication. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Samovar, L.A., Porter, R.E., McDaniel, E.R. and Roy, C.S., 2014.Intercultural communication: A reader. Cengage Learning.

Thursday, April 2, 2020

Is Wrestling For Children Essays - WWE Hall Of Fame,

Is Wrestling For Children? Is Wrestling Suitable for Children? Children all over the world are watching wrestling now more than ever. Some say it is very entertaining while others say it is garbage. Nonetheless, tickets are selling in less than an hour. ?Besides matches, which are when two or more wrestlers compete in a ring, there are also interviews where the wrestlers state how they feel to the fans. In these interviews, some wrestlers curse and say disgusting phrases that parents feel their children should not hear?, said a high-school student-wrestling fan. This is one of the many reasons why parents ban their children from watching wrestling. Although some strict parents would never let their children watch wrestling, it is still suitable for children over a certain age of about twelve or thirteen. Today, many people over the age of ten watch wrestling. Kids love to talk about Federation television programs with their friends. Attending a live event allows a family, friends and even football fans to exercise their First Amendment rights. Fans express themselves with self-styled signs that they bring to Federation live events. They even take pictures of their favorite superstars and mock them as well said a student. ?It is not right for a child to know these words but they still do learn them in school and other social places?, said a parent. Parents should not immediately think that their child is doing these things all from wrestling or something else on television. Wrestling teaches children some interesting things that they should know. The parent could let them watch it not only for the entertainment side of it, but also for its learning experience. ?The announcers at the show call the match move-by-move and also use some interesting words that helped me on the SATs?, said a student. Parents must not ban their children from wrestling all because they feel the wrestlers have no intelligence. The only reason why they might have a real reason to ban their children from watching wrestling is the sex appeal involved, stated a parent. It is not fair that if an eleven-year-old boy, who probably does not like girls yet, watches wresting and sees what happens. Parents do not want to let their children watch a woman and a man celebrate after a victory by kissing. If parents do not want their children to watch the Monday Night Raw show and the Thursday night Smackdown show, then they should let them watch the two weekend shows. These shows (WWF Superstars and WWF Livewire) are summaries of what went on in the past week without showing any violence, stated another student. In conclusion, wrestling is suitable for children depending on the maturity of that child. It is up to the parent whether their child should watch wrestling although it is practically the same as watching a rated R movie or even HBO.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

To what extent does the Dogme 95 movement challenge the conventional aesthetics of film narrative Essay Example

To what extent does the Dogme 95 movement challenge the conventional aesthetics of film narrative Essay Example To what extent does the Dogme 95 movement challenge the conventional aesthetics of film narrative Paper To what extent does the Dogme 95 movement challenge the conventional aesthetics of film narrative Paper 2002:104). The Dogme declaration was conceived and signed by both von Trier and Vinterberg and contained ten strict vows of chastity that outlined the technical specifics which a director must adhere to for their film to qualify as a Dogme certified production. The technical specifics are as follows: 1 Shooting must be done on location. Props and sets must not be brought. 2 The sound must never be produced apart from the images or vice versa. 3 The camera must be hand-held. Any movement or immobility attainable in the hand is permitted. 4 The film must be in colour. Special lighting is not acceptable. 5 Optical work and filters are forbidden. 6 The film must not contain superficial action. 7 Temporal and geographical alienation are forbidden. 8 Genre movies are not acceptable. 9 The film format must be Academy 35 mm. 10 The director must not be credited. (Adapted from Dogme95, 2007) On completion of a film, a request is submitted to certify the film as a Dogme production. In this, the claimant must agree that the films production adheres to the vows of chastity. There are currently around 190 Dogme films listed on the official Dogme95 website. The first Dogme film production was Festen (The Celebration), a Danish film directed by Thomas Vinterberg on a budget of approximately i 650,000 (Internet Movie Database (IMDb), 2007). Festens storyline is based around the 60th birthday celebration of a familys patriarch, Helge Klingenfeldt, in which following the disclosure of alleged child buse from Helges son, Christian, is witnessed by family members and guests and the celebration becomes a weekend of revelations and events that no guest will ever forget. The second film this essay will address is the fifth installment of Danish Dogme films, Italian For Beginners, written and directed by Lone Scherfig. Italian For Beginners, which remains the highest grossing Danish language film largely due to its success in the United States (Stevenson, 2002; IMDb, 2007), follows the inter-twining paths of six main characters. In the film, a young minister, a widower, is temporarily assigned to a church whose suspended pastor drove parishioners away; he stays at a hotel where he meets Ji rgen, whos and alone approaching middle age. Ji rgens friend Halfinn, a temperamental restaurant manager, is about to be fired. Halfinns assistant is Giulia, a lovely young Italian who prays for a husband. Olympia, a clumsy bakery clerk, has an ornery father and Karen, a hairdresser, has a mother who is very ill. The paths of these six characters cross at church, in the restaurant, at the hotel, and at a local school which they begin to attend Italian evening classes. It is the contention of both Festen and Italian For Beginners to adhere to the technical guidelines which the vows of chastity outline. To a large extent both films are successful in achieving a plausible attempt at this in alluding to the wishes of von Trier to create a film which does not have the stereotypical glossy feel of a Hollywood blockbuster and taking filmmaking back to basics. Addressing these technical specifics separately, both films, which do not credit their directors, follow the rule of shooting on location and using props which would normally be found in such a setting. Festen takes place inside a large country house and its grounds in rural Denmark. As such, the onscreen action is divided between scenes which occur in the bedrooms, bathrooms, the kitchen, a large dining room and the extended exterior grounds of the house. Italian For Beginners for the large part takes place in a small Danish town in suburban Copenhagen, with a smaller segment towards the end of the film shot on location in Venice. The film makes excellent functional use of the town it is filmed in by using the main characters places of work as filming locations alongside their homes and local amenities such as local cafes, the hospital where Karens mother is an inpatient and the school lecture theatre where the main characters congregate on a weekly basis for the Italian classes. This allows for a range of props to be used which would be naturally located in these settings and largely applies to Italian For Beginners as it employs the use of multiple different locations. As Festen is filmed in fewer locations the use of props occurs to a lesser extent, however, the minor touches to a film which are achieved through the use of props is countered by the use of other technical considerations such as lighting, choice of camera shots, music and also through the use of dialogue and the proxemics of the onscreen action. The sound that features in these two films is both natural and diagetic and the music which characterises specific scenes in each film is complimentary to the storyline or the onscreen action. Italian For Beginners features music during the various religious services at the church where Andreas is the Pastor, in the Venetian restaurant where the main characters enjoy a romantic Italian meal at the end of the film and during a somber moment at the hospital where Karen is visiting her mother from an adjacent music room. Festen contains fewer incidences of music. Despite the collective, drunken, singing outbursts of the party guests, the only scene which features explicit music comes after the dinner party when some sleepless, drunk family members, guests and servants gather around the piano to dance in the early hours of the morning. This is integral to the narrative as their drunkenness symbolically marks the deterioration of the Klingenfeldt family at this particular point in the film. The camera work throughout each film uses the Academy 35mm format, neglects the use of both optical work and filters and relies on natural lighting to accompany each shot. Both films are shot in colour and feature the use of hand-held camera work in alignment with the vows of chastity, characterised by the often shaky camera movements particularly when the camera tracks characters movements or switches between shots of characters in a single scene. Furthermore, the films take place without temporal and geographical alienation, however, during the closing scenes of Italian For Beginners the characters stray away from the small Danish town which their previous interactions have taken place in and relocate to Venice to conclude their story. Despite this geographical shift, the same temporal settings apply to the action and the change in location is very much integral to the storyline as is it provides the opportunity for the culmination of the main characters dreams and desires. Festen works in an opposite way to bring together family members and guests from different parts of Denmark and Europe to descend on one specific location in the Danish countryside. Though the action takes place within many different rooms and in the exterior grounds of the house in which the story is set, the action never moves from these grounds and the equilibrium of the story is destabilized and restored within less than a 24-hour time frame. Superficial action, in terms of murders and the use of weapons, is not a part of either film, though it could be contested that superficial action to some extent is portrayed as both films contain violent outbursts of fighting and aggression. During Festen, Michael, along with some other guests, are instructed by Helge to remove Christian from the house, a task which they respond to with force and results in a fight between Christian and Michael outside in the woods. Michael is also featured in other scenes displaying aggression towards his wife (Mette) and subsequent to Helges confirmation that he did abuse Christian and his sister as children; Michael drags Helge from his bedroom in the middle of the night and begins to assault him in the garden. Aggressive outbursts similarly occur in Italian For Beginners, however, to a lesser extent than in Festen. Halfinn is a hostile character by nature and although there are no overt physical assaults in Italian For Beginners, there are several aggressive outbursts by Halfinn with Olympia in the bakers shop when he is refused rum truffles, with the hotel manager when he is fired from his restaurant job and with two patrons of the restaurant who wont remove their feet from a table. Where the two films fall short of meeting all of the criteria for a Dogme film, is with the assignment of genre. The Dogme manifesto states that to qualify as a Dogme film that genre movies are not acceptable (Dogme95, 2007), but this presents itself as a problematic area. Italian For Beginners is chiefly characterised as a romantic comedy and Festen could be labelled as a family drama or a black comedy, thus breaking the fundamental Dogme rule of no assigned genre. This area becomes problematic because in all forms of art, particularly those including the spoken word and action, there are conventions that exist which characterise texts and films and it would be near impossible to create a film that could not be assigned a genre. Marshall and Werndly (2002:114) define genre as a type of text which includes particular and recognizable characteristics that exist within a text that relate it to other texts. Some forms of genre identified by Myers (1994:210) include; a murder mystery, a riddle, a sonnet, a collections letter, or a demonstration advertisement. Furthermore, it is a specific text type which is characterized primarily by the kind of relationship it sets up between its users and certain textual properties which is important to create a relational value between the audience and the text. Moreover, genre is a highly important factor with the marketing of a film. The balance of romance and comedy in Italian For Beginners is perhaps the main component of the film that contributed to its imminent success across the continents as it provides a relational value. Festen was also successful at several International film festivals, chiefly because it was the much anticipated first Dogme production, but it could be argued that part of its success is because it too has a relational value with the audience. Its popularity may have spread because of the elements of production that gave it a genre for filmgoers to relate to, be entertained by and to be interested in. As previously stated, it was the initial contention of the brotherhood to take filmmaking back to basics and remove the Hollywood gloss in a new wave of film production. Adams (2001:1) notes that: The film business, they (von Trier and Vinterberg) concluded, had become overly dependent on special effects, fancy camerawork, and other techniques of production. Rather than being built on the bedrock foundations of drama actors playing real human beings in a story movies were becoming more and more dependent on gratuitous action, special lighting, impressive sets, optical effects, audio engineering, and all the other gee-whiz paraphernalia of showbiz. The vital essence of film, dramatic narrative, was in danger of being submerged in glitz. And as if this werent enough, they also concluded that the cult of personality surrounding the film director was detrimental to making good films. Movies are not the work of a single visionary, they argued, and too many directors spend time making artistic statements to gratify their own egos when they should be concentrating on characters and story. Meddings and Thornbury (2000:1) further state that the Dogme brotherhood, most notably von Trier, rejected Hollywood razzmatazz, and saw itself as a rescue action, attempting to restore to cinema the inner story of its characters and to rehabilitate, for the makers of films, their original joy in film-making. This would be largely achieved through dialogue and an intense focus on the characters and an attempt to reclaim reality by a wholesale purge of their aesthetic means (Matthews, 1999). Naturally, for what is essentially lost by rejecting the special effects, fancy camerawork and removing the Hollywood gloss from production, somewhere along the line must be compensated for in order to keep Dogme films visually interesting, but yet still working within the boundaries of the vows of chastity. In both Festen and Italian For Beginners, this is achieved by two different interpretations of working within the vows of chastity, particularly the rules concerned with camera work, sound, locations and lighting. Beginning with Festen, once the siblings have arrived at the country house and are preparing for dinner there are increasingly rapid cuts between three different scenes which include separate storylines for Christian, Helene and Michael. Christian and Pia (a chambermaid, friend and past lover of Christians) remain in Christians room discussing the past as Pia prepares to take a bath. Michael and Mette are seen in their bedroom arguing about Mette not packing appropriate shoes for Michael to dress in for dinner, a conversation in which Michael reveals the underlying feelings of his fathers disapproval of him because he did not attend the funeral of his sister (Linda). The absence of correct coloured dinner shoes to match his black suit adds fuel to this argument which eventually results in Michael being physically aggressive towards Mette and the instigation of sex which the viewer deduces is not wholly consensual on Mettes part. Following this Michael is seen showering as Mette prepares herself for dinner. Meanwhile, Helene and Lars (the receptionist) enter Lindas former bedroom which has the furniture covered in white sheets and in which Helene is supposed to reside in over the course of the weekend. As Helene leads Lars into the bathroom, the two begin to play a game of getting warmer, marked by following small drawings on the white walls, which is a familiar game from Helenes childhood. The intense focus on the bath in the bathroom suggests to the viewer that this is where Linda committed suicide only months prior to this gathering. The game ends with Helene locating an apparent suicide note from Linda in a light fixture on the ceiling that she conceals in her handbag without reading and which is later read at dinner. The filming cuts between these three separate scenes in an intense building of suspense and the cuts gradually become faster, cutting at integral parts of the story. The climax of the scene occurs as Pia who has been pictured underwater in the bath (mimicking Lindas possible drowning) as Helene begins to read the suspected suicide note. Helene shouts boo to Lars, Pia rises out of the water gasping for air and Michael yells as he falls in the shower and pulls down shower rail. These three separate cuts occur simultaneously, consuming less than two seconds of screen time. Additionally, using hand-held cameras to track the characters movements and to switch to views of different guests in their rooms, outside and in the dining room provides an interesting detail of this film appearing similar to a home video of a familys celebration. Cameras are also placed in unnatural positions during some scenes; as Helene pushes Lindas apparent suicide note into a pill tube pulled from her purse after locating it, a camera is placed under the bottom of the pill tube to capture the note being pushed into the brown tube. Also, in the same sequence in Lindas bedroom, the camera captures the action of the getting warmer game from above, providing an almost birds eye view of events as the camera is attached to a boom mic. However, this is something which breaks one of the vows of chastity as the camera at the point is not technically being hand-held by the standards of the Dogme manifesto.

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Ecology is Good Business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Ecology is Good Business - Essay Example With the obvious realism of coming global ecological crisis, there have been many efforts that have been made for moral revolution which would look into probability of incorporating ecological values in the world especially in the global business culture. This has been expressed through many efforts like the green thinking that seeks to transform the world to go green and reverse the trend of environmental pollution. The call for concept of sustainable development has informed us that this world does not belong to us but rather it belongs to the coming generation. Moral transformation that leads to sustainable development has been supported by many efforts. This paper will look closely at ecology as a good business practice that is vital to the concept of sustainable development. (Brown 1996, p. 1) The concept of good ecology as equal to good business can be argued on many front depending on the issue at hand. For some issues, good ecology can turn to be bad business but on many issues, good ecology is good business. Good ecology means development both technologically and socially that is conscious of the world we are living in and the issues that are currently locking the world especially the issue of environment. Every time we mention about ecology, we cannot avoid the issue of the environment simply because it is what composes the planet. Environment is anything that surrounds us from forests, people, infrastructure, soil, and other natural and manmade features. The issue of ecology in the modern days has taken the turn of environment laws fighting to reverse the trend of a polluted landscape which is taking toll on the communities inhabiting these landscapes. Good ecological practices have been seen as those practices which care about the environment where we are living in. Unfortunately, the issue of environment has been so much politicized which has made it difficult for the world to tackle